(Department of Industrial Management, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran)
In the recent years, importance and the role of small and medium enterprises was on the increase in industrial and developing countries. With the appearance of modern technology in the production and communications, some transitions have been created in the ways of production, distribution and organizational structure of agencies, and in this regard the importance of small and medium units has been found an upward movement. Developed countries and recently developed ones, have always applied special policies and strategies for improvement of small and medium industries and facilitating of enterprises entrance in the economical arena. They have applied those strategies for the competitions guarantee in the free market and restraint of big companies monopolization. Networking is referred to groups of enterprises which have cooperation in the special project with each other, and are using their own specialties for overcoming the usual and common difficulties, and gaining access to better efficiency. Networks are propounded in the universal trading subjects as a strong situation and condition, and have considered in the modern trading realm since 90s. Its importance as assistance in the creation of innovations in small and medium enterprises has been considered increasingly. Because small and medium enterprises have similar bonds, difficulties and opportunities, so they are providing the same networking policy strategy, the suitable networking facilities that are proportional with necessities and requirements of small and medium enterprises. Furthermore, clustering and networking of small and medium enterprises are considered as an important informational source and ideas creation for the process and productions innovations. On the other hand, the related small and medium enterprises can have the continual research and development, in which total sum of expenses is less than the research and developments expenses of each one solitarily and separately. In addition, products development, processs recovery, common consultation and coordination in the processs recovery of small and medium enterprises, which have been located in the networking discipline, are more fruitful than the processing and consultation of the distinct small and medium enterprises.Adoption of standard certificates and their related codes for the networking organizations is more accessible and cheaper. Also the instructional networks are providing this possibility, for accessing to the continual educational sources, for all small and medium enterprises in the networks. And finally advantages which obtained from the formation of small and medium enterprises networks can fulfill their needs in relation to their entrance to the universal competition arena. In this essay it was tried to consider the role of research and development networking among the small and medium enterprises and study the opportunities and problems which obtained from that. Furthermore, we will discuss the advantages and benefits of clustering and networking among the small and medium enterprises. The creation of values which obtained from research and development networking in the success and development of small and medium enterprises in the competition market will be analyzed too.