• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Effective Methods of Technology Transfer
        Amir Hosein Amir khani Mohammad Javad Esfandiari
        Today transfer of the new and superior technology As one of the Method of maintaining competitive advantage. Technology Transfer be a shortcut of accessing new technology for developing countries (like ours), and to reach this goal, technology transfer process should co Full Text
        Today transfer of the new and superior technology As one of the Method of maintaining competitive advantage. Technology Transfer be a shortcut of accessing new technology for developing countries (like ours), and to reach this goal, technology transfer process should completely considered. Getting familiar with preventive and movement factors of technology, will help to reduce the failure rate of technology tranfer. Upon providing a multi-aspect definition of technology, this paper intends to define two methods of accessing technology, one is transferring from other countries and the other is self accessing technologies. There are three major parts in technology transfer process: - Selection & obtaining of technology - Compliance, application and absorption of technology - Promotion & Distribution of technology It is tried to explain technology transfer process, effective factors, its obstacles, necessities and any effects of which in economic development. Lack of localization is one of the major reasons of failure in technology transferm which is considered by explaining the most important reasons which causes research & development institutes fail on localization process of imported technologies. Furthermore in order to find required success in technology transfer, it is a need of receiving companies of technology to manage finding tacit knowledge of it as well. Finally it is explained the importance of tacit knowledge and required fields for any transfer of knowledge. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Proposing the most appropriate selectionmodel of technology transfer method, with using Analytical Hierarchy Process technique: a Case Study in Iran Khodro Diesel Company
        Ehsan Dehghani Mostafa Mablaghi
        Technology transfer is a sensitive and complicated process that if not done with knowledge and research, will lead to costs and also huge losses. while the audience of this process are mainly developing countries, it can be noted that studying and investigating the proc Full Text
        Technology transfer is a sensitive and complicated process that if not done with knowledge and research, will lead to costs and also huge losses. while the audience of this process are mainly developing countries, it can be noted that studying and investigating the process of technology transfer to developing countries, generally shows weaknesses due to ignorance of the terms, conditions and requirements available, and also the policies and goals of technology transfer, that transferor will follow them, leading to irreversible failures, and the applicant has prevented from obtaining the original technology. Hence, in this study, due to the importance of technology and its transfer in the automobile industry, while focusing on the factors influencing this process in Iran Khodro Diesel Company, that is among the largest and most important domestic automakers, it has been tried that the weaknesses and factors that influence the process and provoke these weaknesses have been detected. Also those transfer methods of technology which are according to national polices and strategies, have led to less dependence, and further, after discussion with experts and specialists in this field survey, and using process models, hierarchical analysis, in the Expert Choice soft wear, to compare any of existing standards and methods are discussed, and the best methods, in order of preference, are introduced. And finally, all research results and achievements are summarized in terms of the most appropriateselection model of technology transfer method, and algorithm design, which help to facility decision-making in this selection, and also recommended to other companies in this industry. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Comparative Analytic Approach to Research & Development in Iran and Some Developed Countries
        Morteza Jamali Paghalue Ehsan Shafiezadeh
        The importance of investment on Research and Development (R&D) has been assumed as a clear and obvious matter in advanced industrial countries, and today it is the R&D that will determine how to allocate the budget and financial issues. Now, investment in R&D units is c Full Text
        The importance of investment on Research and Development (R&D) has been assumed as a clear and obvious matter in advanced industrial countries, and today it is the R&D that will determine how to allocate the budget and financial issues. Now, investment in R&D units is considered as a competitive advantage. Nowadays, only those countries are able to participate and survive on competitive challenges at the international levels which are determined consistently to employ the latest technologies and it cannot be obtained unless they possess dynamic and globally-adjusted R&D centers. In this paper, overviewing the literature of this regard, we go through the analysis and description of R&D success factors and its position in Iran and some developed countries such as Japan, USA, and China. Following an adaptive comparison, some solutions are portrayed to improve the place of research in Iran. In the first step, is the government via providing financial support, facilities, and encouraging and promising environment for the researchers, and in the second step, researchers should engage in innovation and service to our country via strengthening national loyalty and learning about the latest scientific methods in the world,. Especially universities -as thinker entities and society’s great scientific and cultural sources- must establish science-based approach as the dominant thought and endeavor toward applying the researches in the country. This will obtain through constant and proper communication between institutions and academic research centers, and spreading the culture of science and research among the public. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Exploring the Impact of Creativity and Innovation Management, and Technology Scouting on Organizations in Turbulent Environment for Long-term Survival
        Saeed Samadi
        Large and small companies are faced with a significant environmental complexity and turbulent business world. The world is changing at an unprecedented rate due to technological advances. For most businesses, the ability to monitor, identify, and master critical technol Full Text
        Large and small companies are faced with a significant environmental complexity and turbulent business world. The world is changing at an unprecedented rate due to technological advances. For most businesses, the ability to monitor, identify, and master critical technological skills and technologies is important .In times of economic downturn, technology and innovation can be potent sources of growth as long as the investment and talent are there to drive them. Innovation, creativity and technology are enablers of economic advancement. In this paper, the importance of Innovation, Creativity management and Technology Scouting for organizations in a turbulent environment is explored and it is shown that the winners will be those that react to the crisis by further embracing technology and innovation to find ways to become more productive and competitive. It is shown that sometimes it is better for an organization to put another part of itself out of business rather than have the competition destroy the whole business. Innovation is a team effort and successfully managing innovation teams is an art. The first step toward innovation is the openness of an organization to new ideas and concepts. It is mentioned that managers cannot order creativity; managers can only provide an environment where creativity grows well. An important step is to establish an organizational culture that fosters creativity. As one of the biggest obstacles to fostering innovation and creativity is uptight and rigid people, the paper emphasizes on organizational openness to new ideas and concepts and discusses the ways to achieve this goal with a view to past experiments. Technology scouting is another important factor that can serve as an early warning system. The early detection of new technologies allows an organization time to prepare for or even acquire these technologies before they have a negative business impact on the firm. However, it is important that the process is performed in the right way to guarantee the best possible extent of technology surveillance occurs. In this paper, it is explained that organizations must keep a keen focus on technological areas that could affect the business environment. Overall, it is concluded that for organizations in a turbulent environment, developing an environment that fosters creativity and innovation is an important step in assuring long-term survival. To fail to do so can mean the death of an organization. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - The Optimization of Queueing System for Obtaining the Initial and Final Permission for STPs and Incubators Office
        Mahdi Yosefi Nezhad Atarry Ensiyeh Neyshaboory
        One of the main topics in applied mathematics and operation research is the studying of queue systems and reducing the undesirable effects of waiting. In the systems that queueing and waiting are the main concerns of them, the aims of system analyzing are system behavio Full Text
        One of the main topics in applied mathematics and operation research is the studying of queue systems and reducing the undesirable effects of waiting. In the systems that queueing and waiting are the main concerns of them, the aims of system analyzing are system behaviour recognition, identification of the distributions and the parameters, simulation, and at the end presenting an appropriate solution that fulfills the desired goals to determine the optimum capacity. One of the problems of our country is that because of long queues and input rate to servers, the processes of administrative activities take a long time to complete. In this paper the process of obtaining the principled and decisive permitions from the Ministry of the sciences, research and technology to establish a science and technology park or an incubator (that takes a relatively long time) is being surveyed and analyzed. After analyzing and reviewing the different scenarios of assigning employees to the proper cases, we concluded that the assigment of 3 experts for principled cases and 5 experts for decisive cases results in lower average waiting time of the customers in queue (wq) and the average number of people in queue (Lq) in comparison to the two other alternatives under the study. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Open Innovation Process and Firms Obsorptive
        GHazaleh Javid Jafar Bagheri Nejad
        Open innovation and absorptive capacity are two popular concepts in contemporary innovation management literature. firms' absorptive capacity, as it has been defined by Cohen and Levinthal (1990), determines their ability to in-source externally developed technology or Full Text
        Open innovation and absorptive capacity are two popular concepts in contemporary innovation management literature. firms' absorptive capacity, as it has been defined by Cohen and Levinthal (1990), determines their ability to in-source externally developed technology or ideas. In this paper, we tie these two concepts to each other and prove how the recent insights about open innovation can advance our understanding of absorptive capacity. External technology sourcing is becoming more important for a number of reasons: Shortening technology life cycles, emerging technologies with the potential to disrupt market leaders' positions, sharing costs and risks associated with science based technology, globalization of the R&D activities as a response of companies to the greater dissemination of knowledge throughout the world, the growing importance of seed and venture capital to finance excellent business ideas, etc... These inter-organizational knowledge flows do not materialize automatically and firms have to develop skills to tap into external sources of technology. Furthermore, absorptive capacity is crucial in explaining why some companies are better than others in creating and capturing value from in-sourcing externally developed technology and technological collaboration with innovation partners. Hence, absorptive capacity and the outside-in dimension of open innovation are necessarily linked to each other. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how absorptive capacity and the outside-in dimension of open innovation can be linked to each other. We focus on the question how complementary between internal and external technology plays a role in open innovation and absorptive capacity of innovating firms. This paper discuss about open innovation around two key factors (humanity & organizational) and relate it to absorptive capacity .Then analyses conceptual model with SWOT. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Technology Exploitation Mechanisms In Biotechnology
        Jahangir Yadoollahi Farsi Zahra Kalanhaei
        Biotechnology industry has a special place among novel industries and its progress and development speed just in less than three years, is seems surprising. Biotechnology is one of those crucial and important technologies that its success and impact are caused by its ca Full Text
        Biotechnology industry has a special place among novel industries and its progress and development speed just in less than three years, is seems surprising. Biotechnology is one of those crucial and important technologies that its success and impact are caused by its capabilities and extended applications. Most biotech companies are small start ups and although they have been working for several years in this area, they have not been able to achieve significant profitability yet. The evidence proves that there are some problems in process of translating research findings into commercial outcomes. The term commercialization strategy is refers to research and technology exploitation methods in front of researchers and scientists to move their science streams from concept to the market environment. This article intended to identify and introduce the most appropriate strategy of research commercialization in the Iranian biotechnology companies through the mixed methods study. Manuscript Document