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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Innovation and Exports Based on High Technology: Comparison of the Islamic Republic of Iran with Vision Plan Countries
        Abolfazll Shahabadi Haniyeh Samari
        Most of the nation’s economic power to dominate the regional and trans-regional markets depends on the knowledge and technology and its application in creating various products consistent with the current worldwide demand. The use of technology in production and export Full Text
        Most of the nation’s economic power to dominate the regional and trans-regional markets depends on the knowledge and technology and its application in creating various products consistent with the current worldwide demand. The use of technology in production and export leads to increased competiveness strength and enhanced worldwide market share. This study investigates the effect of innovation on high technology exports of Iran in comparison to the selected countries mentioned in the vision plan during 2007-2012 in order to provide policy recommendations to achieve the vision plan goals and seriously addressing the economic sanctions. The results indicate a positive relationship between innovation and high technology exports in studied countries. Among the studied countries, the worst and the best performance on high technology exports respectively are Qatar and Turkey. Iran ranked second in the region on high technology exports and in the couple of innovation indicators (The number of patents and scientific and technical papers) but for the other indicators of innovation, the situation is not desirable. Despite the presence of young and graduated generation and the development of higher education, due to inconsistencies between macroeconomic policies and research and innovation policies and also the lack of demand-driven innovative activities, still Iran has not reached the top position in exports of high technology in the region. So to seriously deal with economic sanctions and to achieve Vision′s goals, it is necessary to adopt appropriate macroeconomic policies in order to create demand for the development of innovation activities. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Comparative Study of the Effect of Innovation on Income Inequality
        Abolfazll Shahabadi Sara Sarygol
        In recent decades, the reduction of income inequality should be considered as the strategy of the major objectives of economic and social development and even the government. Therefore, analysis of income distribution and distributional effects of policies in order to i Full Text
        In recent decades, the reduction of income inequality should be considered as the strategy of the major objectives of economic and social development and even the government. Therefore, analysis of income distribution and distributional effects of policies in order to increase economic growth has gained importance. On the other hand, the ability to achieve creative innovation using human resources as the first step is to convert knowledge into wealth. So, considering the critical importance of innovation in modern economies, the present study investigated the role of innovation on income inequality of OPEC countries and selected the OECD developed countries during the period 1995-2009. The results suggest that the status of OPEC countries compared to OECD countries in both the Gini index as well as innovation is weak and undesirable, due to the lack of coordination between macro-economic policies from one side and research and educational policies form other side. Also based on the results, most countries with better support for innovative activities have shown better income distribution. Thus, the movement of countries with economy and capital resources oriention towards knowledge-based economy, innovative activities support and reduce income inequality are essential orientations for macro-economic policies along with research and educational policies. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - The Effects of Technology Spillover Resulted from Foreign Direct Investment on the Industry Performance
        Abolfazll Shahabadi Seyed Arash Valinia Zahra Ansari
        According to many economists, since the multinational enterprises entering the host economy have relatively more modern technologies than domestic firms, developing countries can reduce their technological gap through FDI inflow channel. It should be noted that the tech Full Text
        According to many economists, since the multinational enterprises entering the host economy have relatively more modern technologies than domestic firms, developing countries can reduce their technological gap through FDI inflow channel. It should be noted that the technology spillover of foreign investors is a function of domestic capacity for absorbing these technological spillovers. Considering the determining role of industry sector in the world economy, the goal of present study is to investigate the spillover effects of foreign investment from technological perspective, on the performance of industry sector of Iran during 1995-2009 years, in form of development plans. The results of the study show that during the second development plan a considerable correlation did not exist among improving the human capital (as the absorption capacity criteria), absorbing the foreign investment, spillover effects, and the industry sector performance. While in the third development plan, the mentioned correlations were significant. The reasons for the above mentioned significant correlations are as follows: policy requirements of the third plan about improving the research and development in macro-level of the economy, passing new laws of protecting and spreading the foreign direct investment in 2002. It is worth noting that while the above mentioned correlations had improved during the fourth development plan compared to the second plan, it shows weaker performance in comparison with the third plan. As a result, it should be noted that the mentioned correlations in industry sector were not significant during 1995-2002 years. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Investigation the Effect of Intellectual Property Rights on Export
        Abolfazll Shahabadi Farimah Rahimi
        Different levels of knowledge and technology among countries play a key role in describing the development gap between them. Hardware-based technology comprises equipment and machinery and software-based technology is an outcome of human intellect. The latter is protect Full Text
        Different levels of knowledge and technology among countries play a key role in describing the development gap between them. Hardware-based technology comprises equipment and machinery and software-based technology is an outcome of human intellect. The latter is protected by intellectual property rights. Protection of patents and inventions within the intellectual property framework plays a significant role in trade development of countries; because new ideas that their properties have been protected can create or strengthen competitive advantages. In this paper, we investigated 0the effect of protection of intellectual property rights on the export of Group 15 member countries during 1995-2007. The index of patent applications is used as an indicator of the level of protection of intellectual property rights. The effect of protection of property rights to export has been surveyed directly and through other variables such as GDP, foreign direct investments and Research and development expenditures. The results indicate that extensive protection of intellectual property rights in the domain of common needs for Group 15 members will provide suitable conditions for increased investment in R&D activities, foreign direct investment, competitiveness power and increasing the exports, especially high-tech exports, if the conditions for application of this patent is provided, then the protection of property rights will be effective on the export, directly of through other variables. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Competitiveness Assessment of OPEC Member: with an Emphasis on Innovation-driven Componets
        Abolfazll Shahabadi Hamed Sadeghi
        Competitiveness is an issue that in recent decade has shifted the attention of many researchers and policymakers to its side. In today's world of expanding globalization, countries are employing all their efforts and use all of their capacities to be able to gain more s Full Text
        Competitiveness is an issue that in recent decade has shifted the attention of many researchers and policymakers to its side. In today's world of expanding globalization, countries are employing all their efforts and use all of their capacities to be able to gain more shares of international markets by improving the competitiveness. Among the factors that increase the competitiveness of the countries, the basic needs indicators, efficiency-driven and innovation-driven can be noted that all of them have been considered in Global Competitiveness Report of the World Economic Forum as one of the most reliable sources of competitiveness at the national level. In this paper, we try to investigate the status of overall index of competitiveness and innovation and basic factors influencing the competitiveness among OPEC members according to the Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011. The results show that the state of competitiveness among countries is not so appropriate, also it should be noted that their competitive power is largely dependent on infrastructure and macroeconomic environment which themselves function from oil exports and foreign exchange revenues. Beside, the innovation components of their competitiveness are poor. Thus, it should be noted that the economic decision- makers in these countries are recommended to push their competitive power toward relying on innovation-driven components which have more flexibility and seek higher value-added for them. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Relationship between flow of foreign direct investment and innovation of Iran in comparison with prospective documented countries
        Abolfazll Shahabadi Nima Nilofarforoushan
        In the present era, innovation as a necessity for sustainable economic growth and development, improvement of living standards and economic prosperity of people has been considered by economic experts. On the other hand, the development of innovation in each country req Full Text
        In the present era, innovation as a necessity for sustainable economic growth and development, improvement of living standards and economic prosperity of people has been considered by economic experts. On the other hand, the development of innovation in each country requires a capital formation to secure the necessary financing. All countries, developing ones in particular, can through flow of foreign direct investments attract financial resources and transfer of technology to create a platform for innovation to grow and thrive. Therefore considering the important role of innovation and foreign direct investment in increasing the competitive strength, this study investigates the relationship between foreign direct investments and innovative visions in Iran’s economy compared to outlook of documented countries during the period between 1995 and 2008. The results of experimental studies indicate the existence of a two-way relationship between foreign direct investment and innovation in these countries. Amongst these countries, Turkey, Iran and Saudi Arabia have been most successful in attracting foreign direct investment and in the development of innovative components, while Yemen and Tajikistan have shown the weakest performance with respect to attracting the same. Moreover, based on the results, the status of the documented countries in terms of innovation and direct investment indicators is not satisfactory compared to the rest of the world. This may be attributed to problems of absorption capacity, inconsistencies between macro-economic policies, education and research policies, and…. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - The Effect of Intellectual Property Rights on Income Distribution in MENA Region Countries
        Abolfazll Shahabadi Sara Sarygol
        The issue of income distribution and inequalities of it has been the topic of discussion in many societies. So always try to be the factors that cause variation in the distribution of income can be identified. If you can identify the factors affecting the distribution o Full Text
        The issue of income distribution and inequalities of it has been the topic of discussion in many societies. So always try to be the factors that cause variation in the distribution of income can be identified. If you can identify the factors affecting the distribution of income in order to achieve the goal of achieving sustainable development and social justice. Since the notion of concepts such as innovation and creativity over the last transaction has been valued and also have been supported as valuable assets, therefore the importance of intellectual property rights in creating and fostering innovation and creative ideas and their effects on intellectual property rights of income distribution in the Mena region countries particularly Iran is reviewed during the period 1995-2005. The study results suggest that the Mena region countries in the Gini index and in intellectual property rights are undesirable. Intellectual property rights have two different effects on income distribution: on the one hand, with the support of creativity and innovation to create productive employments, increased productivity and generated wealth through science and technology can improve the income distribution and on the other hand the income distribution is worsening perhaps due to the increased prices of goods, services and technologies resulting from its monopoly. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - The Investigation of the Effect of Research and Development on the Iran׳s Industrial Sector Productivity
        Abolfazll Shahabadi Omid Rahmani
        This research is evaluated the theorical and analytical role of domestic R&D stocks, human capital and foreign R&D stocks (technology embodied in imports of capital and intermediate goods) on total factor productivity (TFP) growth of Iran׳s industrial sector. As regards Full Text
        This research is evaluated the theorical and analytical role of domestic R&D stocks, human capital and foreign R&D stocks (technology embodied in imports of capital and intermediate goods) on total factor productivity (TFP) growth of Iran׳s industrial sector. As regards, the research and development activities of Iran's industrial sector as compared to developed countries are little it could be hope to foreign R&D stock role and their spillovers on total factor productivity growth of this sector. because the absorption of foreign R&D spillovers mid developing the domestic R&D activities will provide favorable field to total factor productivity growth. Therefore, this study is investigated the direct effect of foreign and domestic R&D stocks (via technology embodied in imports of capital and intermediate goods (and human capital on total factor productivity (TFP) growth of Iran's industrial sector in during 1338-1385. The analytical results say that, human capital and foreign R&D stocks have respectively, the highest positive effect on TFP growth of industrial sector. While, in literature theory, domestic R&D stocks is also have a determinant role on TFP growth. But, by reason of low investment in research budgets and lack of the demand base of research activities, the effect of domestic R&D stocks on total factor productivity growth of Iran׳s industrial sector have, lower effect than foreign R&D stocks. Manuscript Document