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No 59
Vol. 59 No. 15
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The advent of information and communication technology (ICT) and the use of these advances by human societies has a duality in consumption of one of the most important energy carriers (electricity). The use of information and communication technology has two effects. First, the use of information and communication technology has led to the replacement of new technologies with old technologies and thus improves the efficiency of electricity consumption and, consequently, reduces their consumption (substitution effect). Second, installation, commissioning and operation of new information and communication technology equipment will increase demand for electricity (income effect). Therefore, the overall effect of information and communication technology on electricity consumption is a function of relative strength of one of the effects. Accordingly, in this paper, the relationship between the use of information and communication technology and electricity consumption in a group of selected developing countries during the period of 2015-1994 was studied. For this purpose, the dynamic panel model with the PMG approach was used. The results presented in two separate models show that increasing the use of information and communication technology will increase per capita consumption of electricity energy in both short and long term in selected developing countries. Also, the results show that in selected developing countries, economic growth is the cause of power consumption, while there is a one-way causality relationship between information and communication technology and electricity consumption and economic growth.
Keywords : Information Technology ، Communication ، Electricity Consumption ، developing Countries ، Modelling
With the development of electronic learning, Assessment has become a major challenge in this area. Assessment is a critical element in the Teaching - Learning Process and it can affect teaching and learning. Actually Assessment is an integral part of any education system; therefore, Assessment tools are also very important. The focus of this research is on the synthesis of Learners Assessment tools in electronic learning Environments. The research approach is qualitative and its method is synthesis research. In this regard, the statistical population of the study included documents and research related to assessment tools in electronic learning environments that 21 study units were studied by available sampling method. The findings of the research show that 24 tools for assessing learners in electronic learning environment are used, which were placed in two categories of assessment tools: 1. Synchronous Communication and 2. Asynchronous Communication, and in the meantime, assessment tools with Synchronous Communication such as tests, chat and online discussion groups, and joint group assignments, and Asynchronous Communication Assessment tools such as self-assessment, projects, electronic work folders, peer assessment, and articles have the most use for assessing learners in e-learning Environments. Also tests and joint group assignments were common in both synchronous and asynchronous tools. In the end, it is suggested that used several Assessment methods to Assessment learners in the electronic learning environment, which increases the credibility of the Assessment.
hamed abbasi kasani - gholamreza shams mourkani - farhad seraji - morteza rezaeezadeh
Keywords : Synthesis ، Assessment ، Learners ، E-learning ، synchronous ، asynchronous
Technological learning is defined as an endogenous way of generating technological capabilities in developing countries, reflecting the ability of an organization to effectively use, absorb and adapt external technologies, and develop new technologies over time, responding to environmental changes. Three important features of technology learning include gradual technological change, international diffusion of technology and local technological endeavors. In this research, the factors influencing technological learning have been identified. According to studies, two main components, including technological capability (absorptive capacity) and catch up strategy have been introduced as key components. Then, by analyzing the components, the main factors of each are identified and modeled. Capabilities are identified with a set of factors that are categorized as enterprise factors (including internal knowledge of employees, organizational strategies, and technological capabilities), national factors (including market conditions and competitive environment, culture and education, policies and regulations, and Technical infrastructure) and global factors (including fluidity, multiplicity of innovations, and complexity of technologies). The level of these capabilities will determine the catch up strategy. Understanding these factors help to influence the speed and power of technological learning in firms and industries in developing countries. Considering the development of technological capabilities and absorptive capacity at the level of enterprises with the aim of promoting the localization of technology, choosing the appropriate method for acquiring technology in order to encourage learning and acquiring new skills, as well as paying attention to the development of complementary capabilities will lead to technological learning and the success of the technological plans in the country.
Nasrin Dastranj
Keywords : technological learning ، catch up strategy ، absorptive capacity ، technological capabilities ، developing countries
This research studies the effectiveness of the contractual and relational role of government in achieving strategic innovation through outsourcing of information technology. The research method is descriptive (non-experimental) and correlation research is a type of path analysis. The statistical population of this research is all employees of Qazvin Azad University. According to the size of the statistical population, Morgan table has been used to determine the sample size. 317 employees in Qazvin were selected as research sample. Data gathering was done through library and field surveys and the standard questionnaire of Usheri, Katlarsky and Gurbasi 2015. The validity of the questionnaire has been used through content validity method. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated for a scale of more than 0.7. The reliability of this desirable scale was evaluated. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential tests were used. In this research, two hypotheses were used that the results of the first hypothesis between the quality of customer-supplier relationships and the probability of achieving strategic innovation have a positive and significant relationship. In the second hypothesis, the independent contract (fixed price, time and materials, or joint venture By sharing profits) and each set of customer contracts (that is, a combination of different types of contract with one or more suppliers) affects the quality of customer-supplier relationships with the probability of achieving strategic innovation.
hossein shabani - Reza Ehteshamrasi
Keywords : Contractual and Relational Governmental Role, Strategic Innovation, Outsourcing ، of Information Technology
Today's organizations operate in a completely challengeable and complex environment. Moreover, they are constantly trying to adopt new approaches to the development, preservation and maintenance of human resources as the most important organizational capital in order to remain competitive. Mentoring is the art of facilitating the implementation of activities, the process of learning and personal development. In other words, mentoring can be defined as a technique which provides a new approach for organizations in order to conduct human resource in a conventional manner to attain the organization’s goal. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mentoring approach and to evaluate the qualitative dimension of mentors in Isfahan Province's scientific and research community. For evaluating the mentors, at first, the protocols related to the assessment and prioritization of values were given to the mentors in order to define the most important factors based on their responses. Based on their opinions and the most significant factors, a questionnaire was developed and the approach was conducted in a sample of 20 manufacturing-service companies in Isfahan. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were verified. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data, and also the SPSS was used to perform statistical tests. The obtained results prove that the mentors have generally performed at a moderate and good level in the framework of the mentoring approach. According to the single-group t-test, most of the defined factors are convenient in mentors’ performance evaluation in a negligible difference.
Mahdieh mahdikhani - Morteza rasti bozorki
Keywords : Mentoring ، Mentor ، Mentee ، Science and Technology Park ، Knowledge Enterprises

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